Tumors of the eyelid may be benign and malignant.
Benign tumors are nevi (moles), papillomas, warts, molluscum contagiosum, xanthelasma, keratoacantom, hemangioma, and cysts.
Malignant tumors are basal cell carcinoma (basalioma), squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, sarcoma, and cancer associated with xeroderma pigmentosum. It is also possible for the metastasis of tumors of other locations to appear, but they are extremely rare.
Fibromas of eyelids and around an eye
Basalioma of eyelids (carcinoma basocellulare)
Basalioma is usually placed on the skin of the lower eyelid, along the edge or at the very edge of the eyelid. It begins as a nodule, which continually exulcerates and covers with a scab. It grows slowly in width and depth and destroys the surrounding tissue. Around the exulceration or scab rises a typical wall of tumor’s tissue in a pearly color.
In fact, it is not a complete cancer, because it does not metastasize. This is the most common tumor of the eyelids. It occurs by proliferation of cells of the basal layer of the skin. Neglected cancer can affect the eye. It is rarely life-threatening. If it is operated in an early stage, the healing is complete. Radiotherapy or cryotherapy with the exact nitrogen can be used in special cases.
Squamous cell carcinoma (carcinoma planocellulare)
Squamous cell carcinoma is much rarer and much more malignant than basalioma – it grows faster and destroys the tissue stronger, and, unlike basalioma, more commonly metastasizes. By morphology, it may resemble to keratosis or basaliomu.
It is indicated with a node, with hyperkeratosis, and later ulceration. In addition to destroying the surrounding tissue, it also metastasizes to regional lymph glands.
Carcinoma of sebaceous glands (Carcinoma sebaceum)
Occurs as malignant alteration of cells in Zeis or Meibomian glands. Often begins as a limited inflammatory node that is replaced with hordeolum or chalazion. These tumors are the most aggressive of all cancers of the eyelid.
Malignant melanoma of the eyelids (Melanoma palpebrarum)
All malignant tumors of the eyelid should be removed to healthy tissue. Unfortunately, such procedures often transform eyelids, so they need complex surgical reconstructions that restore the appearance and function of the eyelid. Therefore, surgery should be done as early as possible. Sometimes surgical treatment is supplemented by local irradiation, which can cause cataracts and damage to deeper structures of the eye.
It is no different from malignant melanoma in any other part of the skin, and can occur in several characteristic forms. They need not be pigmented. It is important to recognize them early. Tumors with a thickness of less than 0.80 mm rarely metastasize.