The main sign of tumors is exophthalmos, and then swelling and reduced mobility of the eye.
• congenital> dermoid, epidermoid cysts, teratomas, encephalocele and meningecele.
• Acquired cysts> mucocele, piocele, inflammatory cysts, parasitic cysts, dental cysts, cysts of a lacrimal gland
Primary orbital tumors:
• tumors of the development > dermoids, epidermoids, teratomas, kolesteatomas
• mesenchymal tumors> orbital sarcomas, endoteliomas, meningioma
• hematopoietic and lymphatic cancers> Lymphoma, lymphosarcoma, myeloma, myelosarcoms, Hodkin’s lymphoma, reticulosarcoma, chlorine
• muscle tumors> rabdomiomas, Leiomyomas, rabdomiosarcoma, mioblastoma
• vascular tumors> Hemangioma
• Nervous tissue tumors> neurinomas, neurofibromas
• epithelial tumors> primary orbital cancer, malignant orbital melanoma, orbital odontoma
Secondary orbital tumors:
• from the eye
• from the surrounding tissue, sarcomas, carcinomas, retinoblastoma, melanoma …
Gliomas (retinoblastoma) of the optic nerve:
• Schwanomas, neuroepiteliomas, gliomas
Metastatic orbital tumors:
• neuroblastoma, sarcoma
Surgical removal of tumors, radiation, cytostatics, immune therapy.
Pseudotumor of the orbit
Orbital pseudotumor is a common name for the idiopathic inflammatory processes in the orbit: myositis, vasculitis, pseudolymphoma and granulomatous inflammation.
Unlike thyroid ophthalmopathy, proptosis is usually unilateral. Besides proptosis, other symptoms are: limited mobility of the eyeball, vision problems, and sometimes pain. For the correct diagnosis it is sometimes needed to perform a biopsy.
Steroids are given systematically. A dramatic improvement usually occurs, although sometimes problems persist or even worsen. During the treatment should be borne in mind that, as pseudotumor may simulate a tumor, so a tumor may simulate pseudotumor: secondary infections of the orbit caused by a real tumor willl also respond well to steroid therapy.