Category: Degenerative diseases of the eye

MIOSIS

Miosis or constriction of the pupil is normal in infancy and old age. The physiological cause is a bright light, sleep, and accommodation (see synkinesis). The most common non-physiological causes for the miosis are a treatment with pilocarpine eye drops (glaucoma), drug intoxication, Horner’s syndrome, Argyll-Robertson pupils, coma, iridocyclitis, and some lesions of the pons. […]

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NYSTAGMUS

NYSTAGMUS

Nystagmus is a condition in which the eyes cannot stand still, but constantly perform oscillating movements.     Types: According to types of nystagmus movements we distinguish three main types of nystagmus: spontaneus, pendulous, and mixed. Spontaneous nystagmus Spontaneous nystagmus consists of a slow phase, followed by a fast corrective phase. It is divided by […]

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RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA (TUNNEL VISION)

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetic eye disease. Retinitis pigmentosa is night blindness which leads to tunnel vision over the years. Many people do not become “legally” blind to their 40es or 50es and mostly are left with very little vision. Total blindness sometimes occurs when patients are in their early years of childhood. Progression […]

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DYSGENESES OF THE RETINA

FIBRAE MEDULLARES These are myelinated optic nerve fibers in the retina, where no normal myelination exists. They are located along the optical disk in the level of the surrounding retina, white in color and look like little flames that stretch from the edge of the disc. They do not affect vision. TORTUOSITAS VASORUM RETINAE CONGENITA […]

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CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION

1. Occlusion of central retinal artery 2. Occlusion of the branch of central retinal artery The most common cause of retinal artery occlusion is atherosclerosis, or more precisely – embolization with the material from the carotid artery atheroma. Ophthalmoscopicly, the retina is milky white and edematous (whole or part, depending on whether the central artery […]

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CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION

CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION

Thrombosis venae centralis retinae:     Causes: Inflammatory changes of vein membrane, atherosclerosis and impaired coagulation mechanisms. Symptoms: The sudden loss of vision, severe pain. The clinical picture can show: extensive bleeding due to vein occlusion, veins are dilated and tortuous, and the arteries narrow and covered with edema and bleedings, formation of secondary glaucoma. […]

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ABLATION OF THE RETINA

ABLATION OF THE RETINA

The retina is the inner layer of the eye that receives light stimuli (such as film in the camera). Retina is normally attached to the choroid. Although the retina has its own circulatory system, metabolic needs of the retina are much higher and it takes them further from the choroid. Short-sighted people have a particularly […]

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AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

Macular degeneration is a disease of the central part of the retina called the macula, which usually occurs in older adults, which results in loss of sight in the center of the visual field. It occurs in two forms: “dry” and “wet”. Macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people older than 50 […]

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dry form

AGE RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION

Macular degeneration is a disease of the central part of the retina called the macula, which usually occurs in older adults, which results in loss of sight in the center of the visual field. It occurs in two forms: “dry” and “wet”. Macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people older than 50 […]

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VEIN RETINOPATHY

1. Central retinal vein occlusion 2. Central retinal vein branch occlusion Retinal vein occlusion can involve the central retinal vein, or just one of its branches. The appearance of it is related to hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, hematologic disorders (polycythemia, leukemia). Obstruction of flow can be either complete or partial. The consequence of it is the […]

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