Protrusion of the eyeball, walleyed eyes.
It may be inherent with skull malformations (craniostenosis). Acquired exophthalmos is a result of increased orbital content. Acute exophthalmos is caused by a sudden disruption in blood circulation and lymph flow (retrobulbar hemorrhage, venous stasis, vasomotor-allergic edema), or an inflammation of the orbital contents (cellulitis, thrombophlebitis, periostitis, tenonitis). Chronic exophthalmos is caused by a slow and progressive increase of the orbital contents (chronic inflammation, pseudotumors, tumors, parasites). A special type is endocrine exophthalmos with hyperthyroidism: it is usually thyrotoxic develops slowly, but in persons that underwent strumectomia may appear a progressive thyrotrophic or malignant exophthalmos.
It is present only during the acute disease with clinical symptoms – eyes are protruding and look scared.
It occurs as a progressive malignant exophthalmos, and occurs after thyroid surgery. The exophthalmos ophthalmoplegia appears (palsy of cerebral motor nerves; oculomotorius, trohlearis, abducens) and elevated intraocular pressure, and this may lead to luxation of the eyeball, eyelid edema, chemosis, epiphora and lagophtalmos.
Treatment of exophthalmos refers to treating its cause. In carotid-cavernous fistula, a pulsated exophthalmos is developed – therapy of this condition is surgical only.
Curing hyperthyroidism with thyrostatic substances, local steroids, diuretics.