Category: Encyclopedia of the Eye

ASTIGMATISM

ASTIGMATISM

Astigmatism is a condition in which the light rays do not refract equally in all meridians of the eye. For the purpose of division, two imaginary meridians of the eye are defined, perpendicular to each other. The term astigmatism is of Greek origin and it literally means “no point”. At spherical lens, where all the […]

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ELDERLY FARSIGHTEDNESS

ELDERLY FARSIGHTEDNESS (PRESBYOPIA)

Presbyopia is the occurrence of weak vision at close range, which occurs between the ages of 40 and 45 when because of senile changes and loss of elasticity of the lens, accommodation strength of eyes weakens. Then the closest point of vision with the maximum of accommodation digresses from eyes for more than 33 cm. […]

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hyperopia

FARSIGHTEDNESS

A hypermetropical eye has weaker refractive strength than a normal eye (refractive hypermetropia), or it is too short (axial hypermetropia), so the image in it appears behind the retina. Uncorrected hypermetrope has to accommodate all the time in order to see clearly. Therefore, hypermetropes with smaller fallacy can see clearly at a distance. Hypermetropes whose […]

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fibromas

TUMORS OF THE EYELID

Tumors of the eyelid may be benign and malignant.  Benign tumors are nevi (moles), papillomas, warts, molluscum contagiosum, xanthelasma, keratoacantom, hemangioma, and cysts. Malignant tumors are basal cell carcinoma (basalioma), squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, sarcoma, and cancer associated with xeroderma pigmentosum. It is also possible for the metastasis of tumors of other locations to […]

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myopia

SHORTSIGHTEDNESS (MYOPIA)

Shortsightedness or myopia is a condition in which light rays focus in front of the retina, instead of directly on the surface of it, causing shortsighted people to squint in order to get a sharp image of an object. To shortsighted people distant objects appear blurry, but they see close objects relatively clearly. The sign […]

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PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY > LASER IN OPHTHALMOLOGY

LASER is an acronym for “Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation”. Ophthalmologic laser is a source of laser light mounted on a bio-microscope. Directed into the eye, the laser beam causes local photocoagulation. The trace of photocoagulation on the tissue is called a laser seal. The impulse of the laser light which causes photocoagulation […]

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SPECIAL WAYS OF OPHTHALMIC TREATMENT

Subconjunctival treatment   Subconjunctivally are given antibiotics, mydriatics atropine (mydriatic cocktail = atropine + adrenaline + ksilocain), antibiotics and steroids at iridocyclitis and corneal ulcers. Autohema is a subconjunctival injection of blood taken from a patient’s vein. Instead of the patient’s blood, the patient’s serum is increasingly being used. It is used for topic ulcers […]

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MEDICATIONS

  DRIPPING THE EYE DROPS   Pull the lower eyelid downwards and drip one to two drops into the lower transient furrow. The patient should keep the eyes closed for a minute or two in order that the blinking does not wash away the medication. One should avoid dripping into the cornea because it causes […]

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