Category: Encyclopedia of the Eye

APHAKIA AND PSEUDOAPHAKIA

Aphakia is a lack of the lens. Causes: Most commonly it is a consequence of surgical removal of the cataract- Rarely it can be caused by a perforative eye injury. Symptoms: It is recognized by a very black color of the pupils, a very deep anterior chamber (seems like the iris is away from the […]

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CATARACT

CATARACT

Eye cataract is a blurring of the eye lens that causes blur (to loss) of vision in the affected eye. It can occur in one eye (unilateralis) or both eyes (bilateralis).   Causes: It usually develops as a consequence of aging (senile cataract). By aging, natural lens in our eye, also known as “crystal lens,” […]

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EXOPHTHALMOS PROPTOSIS

EXOPHTHALMOS (PROPTOSIS)

Protrusion of the eyeball, walleyed eyes. It may be inherent with skull malformations (craniostenosis). Acquired exophthalmos is a result of increased orbital content. Acute exophthalmos is caused by a sudden disruption in blood circulation and lymph flow (retrobulbar hemorrhage, venous stasis, vasomotor-allergic edema), or an inflammation of the orbital contents (cellulitis, thrombophlebitis, periostitis, tenonitis). Chronic […]

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orbitr

DISTHYROID OPHTHALMOPATHY

Graves‘ or Basedowljev’s disease is of autoaggressive etiology, characterized by the triad of signs: hyperthyroidism with diffuse goiter, ophthalmopathy and dermathopathy. These three events may not appear all together, so the disease should be suspected on even when thyroid tests are normal. Specifically, 10-25% of cases of disthyroid ophthalmopathy have no clinical or biochemical signs […]

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EXOPHTHALMOS (PROPTOSIS)

Protrusion of the eyeball, walleyed eyes. It may be inherent with skull malformations (craniostenosis). Acquired exophthalmos is a result of increased orbital content. Acute exophthalmos is caused by a sudden disruption in blood circulation and lymph flow (retrobulbar hemorrhage, venous stasis, vasomotor-allergic edema), or an inflammation of the orbital contents (cellulitis, thrombophlebitis, periostitis, tenonitis). Chronic […]

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SJŐRGEN’S SYNDROME

The disease associated with hypersecretion of tears. It occurs in women during menopause.     Symptoms: Keratoconjunctivitis, chronic inflammatory fibrotic process of the lacrimal gland and conjunctiva, dryness of the conjunctiva (dry eye – xeropthalmia> lack of tears causes the feeling of dryness of the eyeball with the appearance of glowing and burning), reduced corneal […]

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mikulicz

MIKULICZ SYNDROME

It is a chronic bilateral swelling of lacrimal and salivary glands of unknown origin. It occurs in leukemia, Hodkin’s disease, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, syphilis.   Symptoms: Dry mouth, difficulty in chewing, gingivitis, pharyngitis, dental lesions, swollen round face. Treatment: Antitubercular, luetic, X-ray, operative therapy. The disease spontaneously goes away after a few weeks. 

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ECTROPION

WATERING EYE SYDROME (EPIPHORA)

Epiphora or watery eye is caused by increased secretion of tears (usually a reflex, due to disease of the anterior segment), or impaired drainage. Reflex excessive tearing does not require special treatment. Causes: Reduced drainage is caused by obstruction of the lacrimal canals. The old drainage may be weakened due to eyelid laxity because the […]

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DRY EYE SYNDROME

Dry eye is a disorder of the tear film caused by tear deficiency or heavy tear evaporation that causes damage to the ocular surface of the eyelid, which is associated with symptoms of discomfort. The result is a reduced secretion of tears or one of the components of the tear film. It is manifested by […]

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horner

HORNER’S SYNDROME

Horner’s syndrome is characterized by ptosis and miosis and sometimes unilateral absence of the sweating of the face skin.     Causes: Cause of Horner’s syndrome is a disorder of sympathetic innervation of smooth muscle of eyelids and pupil dilatators. Disorder can occur in any part of this long sympathetic way (see innervation of the […]

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