Category: Encyclopedia of the Eye

DEGENERATIONS OF THE CORNEA

DEGENERATIONS OF THE CORNEA

Those are acquired diseases which are associated with earlier corneal diseases (inflammation, injury, surgery on the cornea, lagophtalmus), metabolic disorders, atrophy of the eyeball or of unknown causes. Depending on the cause, there are edema, bullae, ulcers, blur, neovascularization, various deposits (amyloid, lipids, lime, etc.).     corneal degeneration in layers Treatment: Whenever possible, the primary […]

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KERATOCONUS

KERATOCONUS

Keratoconus is a disease of the eye, specifically of the cornea. Cornea, which is normally in hemispherical form, gradually becomes thinner and bulges like a cone. The disorder of the corneal form disrupts the proper entry of light into the eye and its focus on the retina, so as a consequence visual disorders occur. The […]

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OPTIC NEURITIS

OPTIC NEURITIS

visible part – optic disc (papillitis of the optic nerve) or the part of the nerve behind the eyeball (retrobulbar neuritis). Symptoms: Symptoms of optic neuritis are loss of vision in the affected eye, eye pain at movement, central scotoma, and afferent pupillary defect.   Afferent pupillary defect or Marcus-Gunn pupillary reaction is an abnormal […]

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ORBITAL PSEUDO-TUMOR

Orbital pseudo-tumor is a common name for idiopathic inflammatory processes in the orbit: myositis, vasculitis, pseudolimfoma and granulomatous inflammation.   Symptoms: Unlike thyroid ophthalmopathy, proptosis is usually unilateral. Besides proptosis, appear limited mobility of the eyeball, vision problems, and sometimes pain. For the correct diagnosis biopsy is needed sometimes.   Treatment: Steroids are given systemically. […]

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CELLULITIS

CELLULITIS (INFLAMMATION OF THE ORBIT)

Results of the direct orbit infection are cellulitis, creation of orbital abscess, phlegmonosus inflammation of orbital fat tissue with gradual development of endophlebitis and periphlebitis. Causes: Inflammations of the orbit may occur due to: the spread of infection from the paranasal sinuses, teeth, lachrymal bags, nose, ears …; direct orbital infection after penetrating injuries. Specific […]

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DACRYOADENITIS (INFLAMMATION OF LACHRYMAL GLANDS)

Dacryoadenitis (lat. dacryoadenitis) is the inflammation of lachrymal glands.   Causes: Acute dacryoadenitis (dakrioadenitis acuta) is mostly caused by viral or bacterial infections. Common causes include mumps, Epstein-Barr virus, and staphylococci and gonococci bacteria. Chronic dacryoadenitis (dakrioadenitis cronica) is mostly a result of non-infective inflammatory disorders, such as sarcoidosis, dysthyroid orbitopathy and pseudo-tumor of the […]

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SUBCONJUCTIVAL HEMORRAGE (HIYPOSPHAGMA)

It is the breaking of the blood vessels in the conjunctiva. Blood reddens the conjunctiva. It is usually spontaneous, completely painless, more frequently in hypertensive patients and elderly people, especially due to vomiting, coughing, straining, and rarely the result of trauma. It disappears for 1-3 weeks without any therapy.         

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DACRYOCYSTITIS

DACRYOCYSTITIS (INFLAMMATION OF THE NASOLACHRYMAL SYSTEM)

Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of the nasolachrymal system, which occurs at children as blenorrhea neonatorum. Causes: Chronic dacryocystitis occurs at nasolachrymal system obstruction, when the bacteria in the nasolachrymal sac stagnate, which cause mucopurulent infection. Causes are: streptococcus, staphylococcus, pneumococcus. Symptoms: Epiphora, which is worsen by the wind, accumulation of pus in the inner corner […]

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EPIKANTUS

EPIKANTUS – INTERNAL PTERYGIUM (“The third eyelid”)

It is a vertical skin fold to the root of the nose that covers the inner eye corner. Usually it is a congenital malformation and is present in Down syndrome. It can exist in healthy children, when it disappears by the age of five. Causes: It is a degenerative hyperplasic change of the bulbar conjunctiva […]

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CYTOMEGALOVIRUS RETINITIS

Common in all patients with weakened immune systems (due to chemotherapy, immuno-suppression after organ transplantation, AIDS). It occurs in about 40% of patients with AIDS, it is mostly mutual. In half the cases causes the retinal ablation. Symptoms: Symptoms depend on the location of the inflammation. When the macula or the optic nerve is affected, […]

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